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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.

Environmental Laws

Environment : The stimuli, resources, external conditions with which living things interact is collectively called environment

Variants : AAll living and non living things that develop naturally are called Natural Environment. Factories, Bus Stands, Airports, Residential complexes constitute Built or Constructed Environment. The study of the interaction amongst the biological, chemical and physical matters of the environment is called Environmental Science. The consciousness for the preservation of nature is called Environmentalism. The study of the society at large is called Social Environment.

Human Environment : The manmade structures that help the human being to lead a social and civic life is known as the Built or Constructed Environment. Certain parks are made by the human beings in such a manner that they almost seem to be natural. A large portion of the human environment is manmade.

Environmental Future :On April 22, 1970, people showed their concern about the tremendous pollution of the natural environment. The day was named as the Earth Day. The rivers, lakes, stream, ocean, shores, the air that we inhale-----are polluted. The politicians initially did not pay much heed to this emerging consciousness. The consciousness was big enough to move the establishment and ultimately the governments were forced to include the environment into their national agendas and since then it is still there. Although we have been able to take care of most of the problems like water pollution and air pollution, there is still much to do.

Pollution: Water pollution is an area of major concern in the present world. The Earth’s total surface is comprised of 70% water and it is definitely the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet. Life would have been impossible without water. Water pollution has become a major issue in the past few years, to the extent that the aquatic life is dying at high rates. We must immediately identify the problem and work on the solutions. Water pollution can be controlled by dumping organic wastes in areas far away from residential areas and also by recycling inorganic materials like metals, glass, plastic and paper.

Air pollution is yet another issue of major concern. Solid fuels are used by approximately 3 billion people around the globe for indoor cooking. The smoke that is generated is the fourth-biggest health risk in the poor countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Laos and India, together amounting to about half a million deaths per year. Women and children are amongst the worst affected. Children should never be exposed to the smoke that is generated from the solid fuels while cooking because it causes diseases like lung cancer, pneumonia, chronic asthma, cataracts, and other respiratory diseases. Other sources of air pollution include power and heat generation, industrial processes, and, especially, transportation. The six major types of pollutants are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, particulates, sulphur dioxide, and photochemical oxidants. It can be controlled by the introduction of more smokeless zones and control over the types of fuel used in vehicles and aeroplanes.

Noise pollution has become another rampant cause of disrupting environmental peace today due to the tremendous increase in the number of vehicles. Noise pollution adversely affects the health as well as the behaviour of the human beings.

Pollution Control in the US : In the US, the water, soil, air, animal and plant life is constantly changing due to the natural processes and also due to human actions. The US is trying hard to control pollution. The US has set up threshold standards in order to control air pollution and protect human health. The US has set up various bodies in order to eradicate air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution. In the US, a person may be fined up to US$ 25,000 for dumping toxic waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the authority responsible for the enforcement of pollution control laws in the USA.

Pollution Control in UK : UK started working upon its water pollution long time back. Presently, the major concern of UK has been the control of pollution from industrial activities in a cost effective manner. Environment Agency (EA) implements pollution control laws in the UK.

Pollution Control in India : In India also pollution has become so rampant in the recent past that the Government has to take drastic measures to check pollution. Initially the use of plastics had been banned in the hill area but now it has been banned even in the plains. Limitations have also been imposed upon the volume of noise at which a player can be played or a microphone can be used. Reducing the pollution of the Ganges river is also a major job of the Government of India. India has also set up pollution control boards at the state levels so that pollution can be eradicated from the grass root level. Central Pollution Control Board and different State Pollution Control Boards implement pollution control laws in India.