Public international law is concerned with relationship between sovereign nations. It is based on resolutions of multilateral conventions among different countries and international customs. After the Second World War the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations (UN) under the United Nations Charter. Thereafter international norms and codes of conduct have been further developed by the UN. Moreover, international organizations, such as World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Telecommunications Union, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization etc. have also set international norms in their respective fields. Public international law also covers the international criminal law and law on warfare.
Private international law
Private international law is concerned with the appropriate forum or jurisdictional court for settling international commercial and other disputes between private parties of different nationalities, interactions and trade among whom are becoming increasingly frequent since globalization. This branch also addresses the issue of the choice of the appropriate legal system for effective adjudication of their disputes.
Choice of law in Private international law
When the parties are from different countries, the system of law adopted for resolution of disputes is decisive since the results can be completely different , depending on the choice of law. In disputes involving foreign private parties, it might become necessary even for the domestic court to apply foreign law instead of domestic law .
Supranational legal order
Supranational law is concerned with the system of regional agreements or blocks, where the supranational legal order prevails over the laws of the member nations. The European Union is an example of supranational legal system where the member States have combined their authority for mutual benefit.