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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.


IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) is created by the exercise of intellectual and mental faculty and allows rewards to the creator when his work is used commercially.

IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) includes: -
  • Patents
  • Trade Marks
  • Service Marks
  • Copyrights
  • Designs
  • Geographical Indications
  • Trade Secrets

Patent is the monopoly or exclusive right of the inventor over his invented product or process.

Trade Mark / Service Mark

Trade Mark or Service Mark is the mark of authenticity adopted by the seller to distinguish his goods or services from those of another by indicating the source of origin.


Copyright is the right of the creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works including films and computer programmes for commercial exploitation thereof.


Designs mean the unique shape of a useful product, which should preferably be registered by the maker so that nobody else can apply the same to his article.

Geographical Indications

Geographical Indications identifies goods from a particular place with reputation of special quality, e.g. Darjeeling tea, Basmati rice of India.

Some observations

IPRs have to be renewed from time to time except for copyrights or Trade Secrets .All forms of IPRs have fixed tenure except Trade Marks, Geographical Indications and Trade Secrets. Trade Marks and Geographical Indications remain in force indefinitely if renewed at specified intervals. IPRs are transferable by assignment, gift, licence etc.

Reference links
www.upsto.gov for US patents and trade marks
www.epo.org for European patents
www.patentoffice.nic.in for Indian patents and trade marks
www.copyright.gov for US copyright
www.education.nic.in for Indian copyright law