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Cyber Laws in IT & ITES

With the phenomenal and enormous growth of Internet specialized branch of Law called Cyber Law.

Immigration & Emmigration

When a person enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship , it is called

Immigration.But the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law.

Media And Communication

Communication is the procedure, which we use to exchange information by various methods. And media is the medium or instrument of storing or communicating information. Media and Communication system is different in every country depending on its economy, polity, religion and culture. In communist and totalitarian countries like USSR and China, there were serious limitations on the media. Any criticism about the state was repressed. While in America having Bourgeois, people enjoy great freedom in the sphere of media and communication. Few years ago, before the era of Communication Satellites, the national media, both public and private, was the medium of communication all over the world. With the advent of communication technologies like Satellite Delivery and ISDN, came the transnational media and brought with it the facilities of local TV, global films, and global information system. In the new democratic states, various media associations have been formed to fight for just and open media laws, defend civil rights of journalists and promote industry reforms. In the wake of the rapid growth and independence of the mass media, there arose the need of some laws and regulations. The legal infrastructure of a country determines freedom of the media to perform its functions. The International regulating agency in the arena of media and communications is the International Telecommunication Union, which is the prime agency of the UNO for information and communication technologies. It governs the areas of radio communication, standardization and development. ITU is situated at Geneva, Switzerland, and it includes one hundred and ninety-one member states and more than seven hundred sector members and associates. It promotes the adoption and implementation of fair media laws for the transition from an autocratic to a democratic society. Every democratic nation has respective laws to regulate the various branches of public media and mass media.

Media And Communication Laws In India

The evolution of the Media and Communication Laws in India has been greatly influenced by the history of British colonization in India. The first Media and Communication Law in India dates back to 1799 when Lord Wellesley passed the Press Regulation. It imposed pre-censorship on the newspaper publishing industry. The Press Act of 1835 annulled all the previous repressive laws on media and communication. Then came the gagging Act on 18th June 1857. It introduced compulsory licensing for the owning or running of printing presses, empowered the government to prohibit the publication or circulation of any newspaper, book or other printed material and banned the publication or dissemination of statements or news stories which had a tendency to cause furor against the government, thereby undermining its authority.

The Press and Registration of Books Act was passed in 1867 and till today this Act is in force. The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was promulgated by General Lord Litton, which authorized the government to repress the publication of seditious writings and to impose punitive sanctions on printers and publishers failing to conform the law. The Newspapers (incitement to offences) Act was passed in 1908 with the initiation of Lord Minto to prohibit publication deemed to incite rebellion.